GULLS and TERNS OF THE WORLD

Many years ago, when I first started birding abroad, I set myself a target to see all the gull species in the world, primarily as a focus in deciding where to travel. This is because they are one of only a few bird families which breed on every continent. I achieved my aim several years ago, although there are one or two which I haven't managed a decent photograph of, such as the newly-split Short-billed Gull; two of the most attractive gulls I've only seen as vagrants to Britain, namely Ivory and Ross's. Obviously Ann and I have co-incidentally seen most terns as well, so I've included these. Gull taxonomy seems to be in a permanent state of flux, I believe I have seen all potential future splits, but the total number has increased by at least five species since I started my quest. The taxonomic order has also changed, with several new genera, this is reflected in the latest update, March 2022.

SWALLOW-TAILED GULL Creagrus furcatus.
RED-LEGGED KITTIWAKE Rissa brevirostris
BLACK-LEGGED KITTIWAKE Rissa tridactyla
IVORY GULL Pagophila eburnea
SABINE'S GULL Xema sabini
SLENDER-BILLED GULL Chroicocephalus genei
BONAPARTE'S GULL Chroicocephalus philadelphia
SILVER GULL Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae
BLACK-BILLED GULL Chroicocephalus bulleri
ANDEAN GULL Chroicocephalus serranus
BROWN-HEADED GULL Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus
BROWN-HOODED GULL Chroicocephalus maculipennis
BLACK-HEADED GULL Chroicocephalus ridibundus
GREY-HEADED GULL Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus
HARTLAUB'S GULL Chroicocephalus hartlaubii
SAUNDER'S GULL Chroicocephalus saundersi
LITTLE GULL Hydrocoloeus minutus
ROSS'S GULL Rhodostethia rosea
DOLPHIN GULL Leucophaeus scoresbii
LAVA GULL Leucophaeus fuliginosus
LAUGHING GULL Leucophaeus atricilla
FRANKLIN'S GULL Leucophaeus pipixcan
GREY GULL Leucophaeus modestus
RELICT GULL Ichthyaetus relictus
AUDOUIN'S GULL Ichthyaetus audouinii
MEDITERRANEAN GULL Ichthyaetus melanocephalus
PALLAS'S GULL Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus
WHITE-EYED GULL Ichthyaetus leucopthalamus
SOOTY GULL Ichthyaetus hemprichii
PACIFIC GULL Larus pacificus
BAND-TAILED GULL Larus belcheri
OLROG'S GULL Larus atlanticus
BLACK-TAILED GULL Larus crassirostris
HEERMANN'S GULL Larus heermanni
COMMON GULL Larus canus
SHORT-BILLED GULL L. brachyrhynchus
RING-BILLED GULL Larus delawarensis
CALIFORNIA GULL Larus californicus
GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL Larus marinus
KELP GULL Larus dominicanus
CAPE GULL Larus (dominicanus) vetula
GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL Larus glaucescens
WESTERN GULL Larus occidentalis
"OLYMPIC" GULL Larus
glaucescens x occidentalis
YELLOW-FOOTED GULL Larus livens
GLAUCOUS GULL Larus hyperboreus
ICELAND GULL Larus glaucoides
KUMLIEN'S GULL Larus (glaucoides) kumlieni
THAYER'S GULL Larus (glaucoides) thayeri
HERRING GULL Larus argentatus
AMERICAN HERRING GULL Larus smithsonianus
YELLOW-LEGGED GULL Larus michahellis
VEGA GULL Larus vegae
CASPIAN GULL Larus cachinnans
ARMENIAN GULL Larus armenicus
SLATY-BACKED GULL Larus schistisagus
LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL L. fuscus
BALTIC GULL Larus (fuscus) fuscus
HEUGLIN'S GULL Larus (fuscus) heuglini
STEPPE GULL Larus (fuscus) barabensis
GULL-BILLED TERN Gelochelidon nilotica
AUSTRALIAN TERN Gelochelidon macrotarsa
CASPIAN TERN Hydroprogne caspia
ROYAL TERN Thalasseus maximus
GREATER CRESTED TERN Thalasseus bergii
LESSER CRESTED TERN Thalasseus bengalensis
WEST AFRICAN CRESTED TERN Thalasseus albididorsalis
SANDWICH TERN Thalasseus sandvicensis
CABOT'S TERN Thalasseus acuflavidus
CAYENNE TERN Thalasseus (acuflavidus) eurygnathus
ELEGANT TERN Thalasseus elegans
LITTLE TERN Sternula albifrons
LEAST TERN Sternula antillarum
YELLOW-BILLED TERN Sternula superciliaris
DAMARA TERN Sternula balaenarum
SPECTACLED TERN Onychoprion lunatus
BRIDLED TERN Onychoprion anaethetus
SOOTY TERN Onychoprion fuscatus
ROSEATE TERN Sterna dougallii
WHITE-FRONTED TERN Sterna striata
BLACK-NAPED TERN Sterna sumatrana
SOUTH AMERICAN TERN Sterna hirundinacea
COMMON TERN Sterna hirundo
WHITE-CHEEKED TERN Sterna repressa
ARCTIC TERN Sterna paradisaea
ANTARCTIC TERN Sterna vittata
FORSTER'S TERN Sterna forsteri
SNOWY-CROWNED TERN Sterna trudeaui
BLACK-FRONTED TERN Chlidonias albostriatus
WHISKERED TERN Chlidonias hybrida
WHITE-WINGED TERN Chlidonias leucopterus
BLACK TERN Chlidonias niger
AMERICAN BLACK TERN Chlidonias (niger) surinamensis
LARGE-BILLED TERN Phaetusa simplex
INCA TERN Larosterna inca
BROWN NODDY Anous stolidus
BLACK NODDY Anous minutus
GREY NODDY Anous albivitta
WHITE TERN Gygis alba
BLACK SKIMMER Rhyncops niger